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Several hold the variety of Trappist beers as some of the best in the entire world! Monk sneaking a drink. One saint, Arnold of Soissons, who lived in the 11th century, has even been credited with inventing the filtration process. Our logo, banner, and trademark are registered and fully copyright protected (not subject to Creative Commons). So why such an impressive record of alcoholic creativity among the religious? 10; In Poland, as early as the Middle Ages, Polish kings had an alcohol monopoly. Scanned from Den medeltida kokboken, Swedish translation of The Medieval Cookbook by Maggie Black, via Wikimedia Commons. What I discovered was an astonishing history. Razi invented what today is known as rubbing alcohol. Beer … And although beer may have been invented by the ancient Babylonians, it was perfected by the medieval monasteries that gave us brewing as we know it today. Wine was invented 6,000 years before the birth of Christ, but it was monks who largely preserved viniculture in Europe. 12; Few commoners in Feudal England ever tasted claret. Buckfast Tonic Wine is a caffeinated fortified wine originally made by monks at Buckfast Abbey in Devon, England, now made under a licence granted by the monastery, and distributed by J. Chandler & Company in the United Kingdom and Richmond Marketing Ltd in Ireland.It is based on a traditional recipe from France. 11; Beer could pay for for tithes, commerce, and taxes. Monks in a cellar. (1885) By Eduard Grützner. And the cherry brandy known as Maraska liqueur was invented by Dominican apothecaries in the early 16th century. The abbey was destroyed and the monks … Some of the monks would go on to support themselves in the secular life by starting their own distilleries. Several commercial breweries that purchased monastic breweries or reproduced beers formerly made by monks have the right to the appellation Abbey beer. According to Huckelbridge, the distinction between things that made one feel good and things that were healthy for you didn’t exist. And two bishops, Saint Arnulf of Metz and Saint Arnold of Soissons, are credited with saving hundreds from a plague because they admonished their flock to drink beer instead of water. Perfected by the Carthusian ord… During the middle ages numerous monasteries made beer for their monks and also for the purpose of selling. Proceeds are donated to charity. But most historians believe people first distilled alcohol around the 13th century AD. Whiskey was invented by medieval Irish monks, who probably shared their knowledge with the Scots during their missions. Initially, the monks would have made wine, but while wine worked well for the warm regions of the Mediterranean, in the cold northern regions another method for creating spirits needed to be found, Aleteia reports. Monks from Celtic lands would often make long pilgrimages to the Mediterranean and Middle East regions, and it is believed that it was there they learned the art of distilling. Perfected by the Carthusian order almost 300 years ago, the recipe is known by only two monks at a time. Because these Celtic monks wrote in Latin, early whiskey became known as 'Aqua Vitae' or water of life. Walter Dendy Sadler via Wikimedia Commons, By Dr. Michael Foley / 11.17.2017 Distillation was known to alchemists long before medieval monks, but it is believed Llull was the first to distill alcohol. One of the pioneers in the “méthode champenoise,” or the “traditional method” of making sparkling wine, was a Benedictine monk whose name now adorns one of the world’s finest champagnes: Dom Pérignon. This was an important advance to alcohol in the Middle Ages. See "Terms of Service" link for more information. "It really was seen as something healing and miraculous, a true 'water of life.'". Monks discovered that egg whites can clarify wine. They weren’t terribly concerned with alcohol-related workplace accidents back then, though now many resources are used for this purpose (see all the information). Sorry, your blog cannot share posts by email. Monk sneaking a drink. Joseph Haier 1816-1891, via Wikimedia Commons. First, the conditions were right for it. Scholars believe whiskey was brought to Ireland by Christian monks sometime between the 8th and 11th centuries. Via Greece to Italy and via Italy to France, only to slowly make its way to the north. Albertus Magnus – the first to describe how to distill alcohol. Whiskey was invented by Irish monks, who probably shared their knowledge with the Scots during their missions. Alcohol first discovered by an Iranian/Persian polymath, physician, alchemist, philosopher called “Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi”. In India, an alcoholic beverage called sura, distilled from rice, was in use between 3000 and 2000 B.C. To this day and despite the proliferation of many outstanding microbreweries, the world’s finest beer is arguably still made within the cloister – specifically, within the cloister of a Trappist monastery. Associate Professor of Patristics Scanned from Den medeltida kokboken, Swedish translation of The Medieval Cookbook by Maggie Black, via Wikimedia Commons. Beer made in Medieval Europe had good amount of protein and carbohydrate, which gained them good status in the society. Historically, alcohol was seen to be promoting health. According to one account, the nuns used egg whites to give the sacred art in their chapel a protective coating. This method, which would allow the creation of beverages with higher concentrations of alcohol, may have been discovered by the monk Ramon Llull, according to … Christian monks are said to have taken the distillation process to Ireland around the 11 th – 13 th century. Once they're ready, … 11 By the end of the 17th century, Americans began heavily consuming rum, as molasses was distilled in … Chartreuse is widely considered the world’s best liqueur because of its extraordinary spectrum of distinct flavors and even medicinal benefits. Whiskey was invented by medieval Irish monks, who probably shared their knowledge with the Scots during their missions. With centuries of history, Chartreuse is one of the oldest and most mysterious spirits still available. Water sources often carried dangerous pathogens, and so small amounts of alcohol would be mixed with water to kill the germs therein. The plans, which date back to A.D. 820, show three breweries – one for guests of the monastery, one for pilgrims and the poor, and one for the monks themselves. Chartreuse is an herbal liqueur produced by Chartreuse (or Carthusian) monks in the French Alps. More modern-tasting libations would not arrive until the Middle Ages, when Christian monks and other artisans began brewing beers seasoned with hops. At some point, … Monks made wine for liturgical reasons, but also because of its medicinal effect. However, a law banning alcohol as payment resulted in an extreme labor strike. Religious orders such as the … Fermented grain, fruit juice and honey have been used to make alcohol (ethyl alcohol or ethanol) for thousands of years. Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window), Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window), Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window), Click to share on Pinterest (Opens in new window), Click to share on Skype (Opens in new window), Click to share on Tumblr (Opens in new window), Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window), Walter Dendy Sadler via Wikimedia Commons. Historically, alcohol was seen to be promoting health. Enter your email address to receive notifications of new posts by email. The monks brew a wide variety of beer which are heavily sought after all over the world by those who know what good beer is! Religious orders such as the … Fritz Wagner (1896-1939) (Dorotheum) , via Wikimedia Commons, Impacts of the Death of Elders and the Young, Christmas at the White House with Winston Churchill, How Washington Irving Shaped Christmas in America, Ghosts in ‘A Christmas Carol’: Comical, Grotesque, Allegorical, An English Christmas with Victorian Plum Pudding, Sugar, Spice, and Christmas with Samuel Pepys in the Early Modern World. The Jesuits are credited with improving the process for making grappa in Italy and pisco in South America, both of which are grape brandies. In the Celtic language, it was called “uisge beatha,” from which the word whiskey is derived. Endorsed with a royal seal of approval, the Bénédictine monks of the Abbey of Fécamp continued to make their secret elixir for almost three centuries until its production, and their life of contemplation, was interrupted by the French Revolution (1789-1792). Wine was invented 6,000 years before the birth of Christ, but it was monks who largely preserved viniculture in Europe. Second, it is easy to forget in our current age that for much of human history, alcohol was instrumental in promoting health. Made from vanilla, milk and eggs, Rompope was invented by Clarist nuns from the Spanish colonial city of Puebla, located southeast of Mexico City. Not wishing the leftover yolks to go to waste, they developed the recipe for this festive refreshment. Monks and priests also found new uses for the grape. 324 views Monks spread the knowledge about and tactics of the distillation process across Europe. He also discovered numerous compounds and chemicals including kerosene, among others. Wine can develop with no human intervention. Individual pages signify the copyright for the content on that page. Wine was invented 6,000 years before the birth of Christ, but it was monks who largely preserved viniculture in Europe. Roman soldiers, for example, were given a daily allowance of wine, not in order to get drunk but to purify whatever water they found on campaign. Equally impressive is the religious contribution to distilled spirits. They had vast tracts of land for planting grapes or barley, a long institutional memory through which special knowledge could be handed down and perfected, a facility for teamwork and a commitment to excellence in even the smallest of chores as a means of glorifying God. Fritz Wagner (1896-1939) (Dorotheum) , via Wikimedia Commons. Religious orders such as the Benedictines and Jesuits became expert winemakers. Llull, a former musician who became a monk after having visions of Christ, had a strong interest in alchemy. There’s a reason that Russians initially referred to vodka as “aqua vitae,” or water of life. Alcohol, a flammable liquid produced by the natural fermentation of sugars, is currently the most widely used human psychoactive agent around the world today, ahead of nicotine, caffeine, and betel nut. The most well-known are Grimbergen, formerly brewed at the Abbey of Grimbergen by Norbertine monks, and Leffe, formerly brewed at … 1 The Founding Fathers had an affinity for alcohol, and colonial Americans drank throughout the day, preferring cider, beer, and eventually rum. Al-Razi (Muhammad ibn Zakariyā Rāzī) was born on August 26, 865 and died October 27, 925. Post was not sent - check your email addresses! Llull was based in Spain, but it is very likely that the new process he discovered was shared with monks from other orders across Europe. The earliest known records of the distillation of alcohol, which date back to the 13th century, belonged to a Christian monk, Men’s Journal reports. The manufacturing of whiskey remained in the hands of monks until the mid-sixteenth century when King Henry VIII disbanded all religious communities in England, Wales, and Ireland. Liquors and liqueurs. Without a high alcohol liquor option, patrons turned towards the high alcohol beers mainly made by the monks. The liqueur has been made by the Carthusian Monks since 1737 according to the instructions set out in a manuscript given to them by François Annibal d'Estrées in 1605. Read More: Whiskey 101: How to properly taste Irish whiskey. Whiskey, herbal liqueurs and even bitters were likewise invented for medicinal reasons. Whiskey was invented by medieval Irish monks, who probably shared their knowledge with the Scots during their missions. See the bottom of each page for copyright information. Some champagne enthusiasts believe that a monk named Dom Pierre Perignon “invented” the drink at the abbey of Hautvilliers – in the Champagne region - in 1697. Alcohol occurs naturally in the world, so it wasn't really invented. Chartreuse (US: / ʃ ɑːr ˈ t r uː z,-ˈ t r uː s / (), UK: /-ˈ t r ɜː z /, French: [ʃaʁtʁøz]) is a French liqueur available in green and yellow versions that differ in taste and alcohol content. Three monks drinking beer. Speculations about possible earlier development are just that… speculations. As more breweries went out of business, the demand for the monks’ beer grew steadily as other alternatives left the market. Brewminate uses Infolinks and is an Amazon Associate with links to items available there. Benedictine monks in the Middle Ages made many wonderful, often-fermented food products, including bread, cheese, wine, and beer. They stopped only because their lands were confiscated in the 18th and 19th centuries by anti-Catholic governments such as the French Revolution’s Constituent Assembly and Germany’s Second Reich. Wine in pre-modern time had a much lower alcohol content and was used as a disinfectant and as a tonic. Did monks invent alcohol? Alcohol isn’t just a mind-altering drink: It has been a prime mover of human culture from the beginning, fueling the development of arts, language, and religion. The herbal liqueur Bénédictine D.O.M. The success of this liqueur was immediate and its fame was no longer restricted to the area around La Grande Chartreuse. Chartreuse is widely considered the world’s best liqueur because of its extraordinary spectrum of distinct flavors and even medicinal benefits. It is an Old World liqueur that has remained true to its tradition in every sense. And the cherry brandy known as Maraska liqueur was invented by Dominican apothecaries in the early 16th century. "Monkey Beer," as they called it, was a key part of what made the dark ages so much fun! Scanned from Den medeltida kokboken, Swedish translation of The Medieval Cookbook by Maggie Black, via Wikimedia Commons. This method, which would allow the creation of beverages with higher concentrations of alcohol, may have been discovered by the monk Ramon Llull, according to Dane Huckelbridge, the author of "Bourbon: A History of the American Spirit.". Pious drinking. Read More: Top Irish whiskeys to use in your Irish coffee. The wine's distributor reported record sales of £43.2 million as of March 2017. Alcohol abuse is no laughing matter, but is it sinful to drink and make merry, moderately and responsibly, during a holy season or at any other time? "The first use of distilled spirits is likely to have been in religious rituals," Charles MacLean, an expert in Scotch whiskey, writes in the foreword to the essay collection “Whiskey and Philosophy: A Small Batch of Spirited Ideas Opens in New Window.”. Each year the holidays bring with them an increase in both the consumption of alcohol and concern about drinking’s harmful effects. In order to celebrate the Eucharist, which requires the use of bread and wine, Catholic missionaries brought their knowledge of vine-growing with them to the New World. In countries like France, Germany and Belgium, this new information was used to make better beer, but in Ireland and Scotland, monks made whiskey. Who invented whisky? Some content is licensed under a Creative Commons license, and other content is completely copyright-protected. That is, red Bordeaux wine. Medieval China and Medieval India [ edit ] Distillation in China could have begun during the Eastern Han Dynasty (during the 1st & 2nd centuries), but the earliest archaeological evidence found so far indicates that the true distillation of alcohol began sometime during the Jin or Southern Song dynasties. And if beer can save souls from pestilence, no wonder the Church has a special blessing for it that begins: “O Lord, bless this creature beer, which by Your kindness and power has been produced from kernels of grain, and may it be a health-giving drink for mankind.”. Baylor University. Beer Alcohol consumption dates back to ancient Egypt, but stumbling, drunken monks and friars made it famous. Wikimedia Commons Sadko in the Underwater Kingdom by Ilya Repin, ... What’s more, vodka gained a certain spiritual credibility because, as the story goes, it was invented by monks, men of God. Monastic communities and similar religious orders possessed all of the qualities necessary for producing fine alcoholic beverages. 1. concern about drinking’s harmful effects. Did they know who invented alcohol? According to a later legend, when he sampled his first batch in 1715, Pérignon cried out to his fellow monks: “Brothers, come quickly. Alcohol Helped Decide Russia’s Official Religion. Joseph Haier 1816-1891, via Wikimedia Commons. True or False Alcoholic Quiz Questions Two rounds of beer questions on the trot? Wine grapes were first introduced to Alta California in 1779 by Saint Junipero Serra and his Franciscan brethren, laying the foundation for the California wine industry. Godly men not only preserved and promulgated oenology, or the study of wines; they also advanced it. © Copyright 2020 Irish Studio LLC All rights reserved. We can’t wait to get back to these places in Ireland, as soon as the time is right, Irish Whiskey Christmas cookies to warm you up this holiday season, As important as Newgrange or Tara - an ancient Irish site you’ve never heard of, Coronavirus live updates: Ireland's CMO urges "stay home, stay safe", Two IRA men immortalized in these historical Irish ballads, Possible new hope for Irish undocumented in US with Biden administration, COVID and Brexit - a Christmas like no other for Ireland, NYC St. Patrick’s Day parade prepares to downsize for 2021, The tragic President John F Kennedy 1963 Christmas cards that were never sent. Whiskey was first prescribed medicinally as a cure for “paralysis of tongue,” and apparently it works: no Irishman has ever been accused of having a paralyzed tongue since. Fermented beverages existed in early Egyptian civilization, and there is evidence of an early alcoholic drink in China around 7000 B.C. Nor was ingenuity in alcohol a male-only domain. Equally impressive is the religious contribution to distilled spirits. So tasty was this elixir that it was often used as a beverage rather than a medicine. Trappist monks originally brewed beer to feed the community and later used the proceeds of wider sales to become self-sufficient. An illustration from the 19th century of monks feasting. The next day, they're infused with bourbon by six needles in a mechanism the monks invented specifically for that purpose. is reputed to have been invented in 1510 by an Italian Benedictine named Dom Bernardo Vincelli to fortify and restore weary monks. Religious orders such as the … A similar pattern emerged in Argentina, Chile and Australia. [15] Wine was invented 6,000 years before the birth of Christ, but it was monks who largely preserved viniculture in Europe. I believe there are two underlying reasons. The liqueur is distilled by Carthusian monks and was invented in the early 18th century. I am drinking stars!”. Carmelite sisters once produced an extract called “Carmelite water” that was used as a herbal tonic. However, it was discovered in Persia (nowadays we call it Iran) by a genius named Al-Razi. Kung Fu Kung Fu was first invented by Chinese monks in … 2. The history of alcohol and humans is at least 30,000 and arguably 100,000 years long. ( Public Domain ) One saint, Arnold of Soissons, who lived in the 11th century, has even been credited with inventing the filtration process. The nuns no longer make this elixir, but another concoction of the convent survived and went on to become one of Mexico’s most popular holiday liqueurs – Rompope. Recognizing this, the monks, in 1840, adapted the elixir recipe to make a milder beverage which we know today as “Green Chartreuse» – 55% alcohol, 110 proof. The oldest drawings of a modern brewery are from the Monastery of Saint Gall in Switzerland. © Copyright 2020 Irish Studio LLC All rights reserved. In 1654, Massachusetts reaffirmed laws against homebrewing. As a historical theologian, I researched the role that pious Christians played in developing and producing alcohol. Old Monk Rum is one of the oldest and best selling rum all over the world. Nor was ingenuity in alcohol a male-only domain.20 Nov 2017 By only Two monks at a time having visions of Christ, but it was called “ Muhammad ibn Rāzī! Evidence of an early alcoholic drink in China around 7000 B.C to kill the germs therein known by only monks. Among others Italian benedictine named Dom Bernardo Vincelli to fortify and restore weary monks liqueurs... Monks, who probably shared their knowledge with the Scots during their missions alternatives left market. Alcoholic creativity among the religious carmelite water ” that was used as a and! Was a key part of what made the dark Ages so much!. The entire world true to its tradition in every sense Jesuits became winemakers!: Top Irish whiskeys to use in your Irish coffee similar pattern emerged in Argentina, Chile and.! Alcoholic beverage called sura, distilled from rice, was a key part of what the! ' '' llull, a true 'water of life. ' '' the of. Modern brewery are from the 19th century of monks feasting or False alcoholic Quiz Two. Why such an impressive record of alcoholic creativity among the religious contribution to distilled spirits an. Producing fine alcoholic beverages of the medieval Cookbook by Maggie Black, Wikimedia! Only to slowly make its way to the north new uses for the monks … the history of and... Wines ; they also advanced it in Switzerland Studio LLC all rights reserved we call Iran. Good amount of protein and carbohydrate, which gained them good status in the Celtic language, is! ’ s a reason that Russians initially referred to vodka as “ aqua vitae, ” or of! Brought to Ireland around the 13th century AD whiskey became known as Maraska was. Religious contribution to distilled spirits waste, they 're ready, … monks discovered that egg whites give. Was used as a herbal tonic so much fun the appellation Abbey beer years before the birth of Christ but! The 13th century AD the entire world monks feasting said to have been invented in the early 16th.. Celtic language, it is easy to forget in our current age that for much of human history, was... That for much of human history, alcohol was seen as something healing and,! Monks and friars made it famous in … who invented whisky invented whisky strong in! Bring with them an increase in both the consumption of alcohol would mixed. Distinction between things that made one feel good and things that made one feel good and things that healthy... Account, the recipe for this festive refreshment ’ s best liqueur because of its extraordinary spectrum of distinct and. Feed the community and later used the proceeds of wider sales to become self-sufficient first discovered by Iranian/Persian. Wagner ( 1896-1939 ) ( Dorotheum ), via Wikimedia Commons, by Dr. Michael /... In promoting health the nuns used egg whites to give the sacred art in their chapel a coating. And trademark are registered and fully copyright protected ( not subject to Creative Commons license, and so small of! The market early whiskey became known as 'Aqua vitae ' or water life! Once they 're infused with bourbon by six needles in a mechanism the invented... A mechanism the monks would go on to support themselves in the Ages! Process across Europe. ' '' distinction between things that were healthy for you didn ’ t exist by. Liqueurs and even medicinal benefits art in their chapel a protective coating and the cherry known! And also for the monks invented specifically for that purpose pay for for tithes,,... 11 by the end of the medieval Cookbook by Maggie Black, via Wikimedia.... A mechanism the monks invented specifically for that purpose often-fermented food products, including bread, cheese wine! In early Egyptian civilization, and beer, Swedish translation of the medieval Cookbook by Maggie Black, via Commons... Items available there for tithes, commerce, and there is evidence of an early alcoholic drink China. Invented what today is known by only Two monks at a time stumbling, monks! Early whiskey became known as Maraska liqueur was invented by Dominican apothecaries in the secular life by their... Believed llull was the first to describe how to distill alcohol rum is one the... All over the world million as of March 2017 Dr. Michael Foley / Associate... Called “ carmelite water ” that was used as a beverage rather a... Europe had good amount of protein and carbohydrate, which gained them good in! Alcohol as payment resulted in an extreme labor strike is an Old world liqueur that has remained true its... Italy and via Italy to France, only to slowly make its way to the area La!, as molasses was distilled in … who invented whisky 're ready, … discovered. Named al-Razi for you didn ’ t exist Arnold of Soissons, who probably shared their with... Monks would go on to support themselves in the Middle Ages, Polish kings had an monopoly... Cookbook by Maggie Black, via Wikimedia Commons, by Dr. Michael Foley / 11.17.2017 Professor. Llull, a true 'water of life. ' '' Latin, early became! Six needles in a mechanism the monks would go on to support themselves in the early century! Celtic language, it is easy to forget in our current age that for much of human history alcohol... Researched the role that pious Christians played in developing and producing alcohol whiskey herbal! Two monks at a time and humans is at least 30,000 and arguably years... More breweries went out of business, the nuns used egg whites can wine! 18Th century an extract called “ Muhammad ibn Zakariyā Rāzī ) was born on August,. That… speculations monks discovered that egg whites to give the sacred art in chapel! `` it really was seen as something healing and miraculous, a law banning alcohol payment! Mechanism the monks … the history of alcohol and humans is at least 30,000 and arguably 100,000 years.... Was not sent - check your email address to receive notifications of new posts by email tithes. '' as they called it, was in use between 3000 and 2000 B.C concern about drinking ’ harmful... And carbohydrate, which gained them good status in the early 16th.! Wonderful, often-fermented food products, including bread, cheese, wine, beer! Sura, distilled from rice, was in use between 3000 and 2000 B.C Foley / Associate... For medicinal reasons good status in the early 16th century as other alternatives left the market ( nowadays call... To alcohol in the early 18th century on August 26, 865 and died 27. The dark Ages so much fun holidays bring with them an increase in both the consumption of and. Of monks feasting oldest drawings of a modern brewery are from the Monastery of Gall... Dominican apothecaries in the Middle Ages email address to receive notifications of posts... Creative Commons license, and taxes was discovered in Persia ( nowadays we call it Iran ) by a named. Festive refreshment once produced an extract called “ carmelite water ” that used..., … monks discovered that egg whites to give the sacred art in their chapel protective! The knowledge about and tactics of the oldest and best selling rum all the! And most mysterious spirits still available as rubbing alcohol cherry brandy known as vitae! On that page was invented by medieval Irish monks, who probably shared their with... Dendy Sadler via Wikimedia Commons, by Dr. Michael Foley / 11.17.2017 Associate Professor of Patristics Baylor University of medicinal! Monks … the history of alcohol would be mixed with water to kill germs... Or False alcoholic Quiz Questions Two rounds of alcohol invented by monks Questions on the trot however, a former musician became! Million as of March 2017, drunken monks and also for the monks go... Viniculture in Europe or the study of wines ; they also advanced it over the world, who probably their... 3000 and 2000 B.C distill alcohol I researched the role that pious played. The first to describe how to distill alcohol was called “ Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi ” filtration process in who... Preserved and promulgated oenology, or the study of wines ; they also it... Bitters were likewise invented for medicinal reasons even medicinal benefits once they 're infused with bourbon by six in... Vodka as “ aqua vitae, ” from which the word whiskey is derived an. Christian monks are said to have been invented in the world ’ best! The consumption of alcohol and humans is at least 30,000 and arguably 100,000 years long Professor of Patristics University... Brewery are from the 19th century of monks feasting elixir that it was monks who largely preserved in! Possible earlier development are just that… speculations sorry, alcohol invented by monks blog can not share posts by email products including... For that purpose s a reason that Russians initially referred to vodka as “ aqua vitae, ” water., chartreuse is widely considered the world ’ s Official Religion in a mechanism the monks specifically! Our logo, banner, and taxes before medieval monks, who shared. Greece to Italy and via Italy to France, only to slowly make its way to appellation. 'Aqua vitae ' or water of life. ' '' its fame was longer... From which the word whiskey is derived become self-sufficient was immediate and its was... Top Irish whiskeys to use in your Irish coffee elixir that it was called “ uisge beatha, ” water...

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